What is sinus?

Colds and headaches are common illnesses, but sometimes they can lead to some serious disease. One of which is sinusitis, which is classified as a serious disease.

Sinusitis begins as a common cold and then develops into a bacterial, viral or fungal infection. The sinuses are small hollow cavity-filled structures filled with air that begin to form around the nose, behind the cheek and forehead bone, and between the eyes. Like, the maxillary sinus in the facial bone on both sides, the frontal sinus in the forehead above the nose, the ethmoid sinus near the eye and the sphenoid sinus adjacent to the middle brain in the back.

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Sinusitis causes inflammation in the sinuses and is caused by an infection. You may experience headaches or pain in your face and nasal congestion. Many times every substance starts flowing through the nose. The pain depends on which type of sinusitis the affected person is suffering from.

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This disease is called acute sinusitis when it is between three to eight weeks and chronic sinusitis if it lasts for more than eight weeks. Every year, three out of every ten people suffer from this disease.

Types of sinus

Types of sinusitis and sinus infections

Sinusitis is classified into several types, including duration of infection (acute, less intense or prolonged), inflammation (infectious or non-infectious), etc. –

  • Acute sinus infection; short-lived – Usually, the infection remains in the body for less than 30 days.
  • Subacute sinus infection – This infection can remain stable for more than one month but not more than 3 months.
  • Chronic sinus infection; It can remain stable in the body for more than 3 months. Chronic sinusitis may also be further subclassified, such as

    Chronic sinusitis with or without polyps in the nose
Allergic fungal sinusitis

  • Recurrent Sinusitis (Recurrent Sinusitis) This occurs when a person is affected by infection several times per year.

Infective sinusitis usually results from direct virus infection. Often due to bacterial growth, sinus infection or fungal sinus infection can also occur but it is very rare. Subacute sinus infection and chronic sinus infection are both the result of incomplete treatment of acute sinus infection.

Infectious sinusitis is caused by irritation and allergy, which follows acute, less acute and chronic sinus infections as common sinus infections.

Symptoms of sinus

What are the symptoms of sinus?

The following symptoms and signs are seen in the sinus –

  • Runny nose or Postnasal Drip; Excessive mucous causing it to drain from the nasal groove.
  • Nasal congestion that causes difficulty in nasal breathing.
  • Swelling and pain around the eyes, nose, cheeks and forehead.
  • Reduced ability to test smell and taste.

Other symptoms of sinus may also occur, including:

  •     Have an ear pain
  •     Pain in the upper jaw and teeth
  •     Increased cough at night
  •     to have a sore throat
  •     Bad smell
  •     Feeling tired or irritable
  •     Nausea

Symptoms and signs of chronic sinusitis and acute sinusitis are similar. But acute sinusitis occurs for a short time and is associated with a cold. On the other hand, the symptoms and signs of chronic sinusitis tend to be longer and because of this you often feel more tired. Fever is not a common sign of chronic sinusitis, but acute sinusitis can cause fever.

When should the doctor see?

You may have acute sinusitis many times before chronic sinusitis develops. With recurrent acute sinusitis, see a doctor in these conditions –

  • You have had acute sinusitis many times and are not curing even after treatment.
  • Symptoms of sinusitis lasting more than seven days.
  • Symptoms do not improve even after seeing a doctor.

If you feel the symptoms mentioned below, consult a doctor immediately. These symptoms can be signs of serious infection –

  • High fever
  • Redness and swelling of the skin around the eyes
  • Feeling a lot of headaches and not recovering even after taking medicine
  • Feeling constantly confused
  • Double vision
  • Stiff neck

Reason to sinus

Why does sinus happen?

Sinusitis occurs due to several reasons. But the main reason for this is the accumulation of fluid in the sinus or nose, in which germs are produced.

  • Virus – Most sinusitis infection in adults is caused by a virus.
  • Bacteria
  • Pollution – Mucus increases due to chemicals and pollution.
  • Fungus (fungus) – Either the fungus in the air is allergic to the sinus or it enters the sinus and becomes the cause of sinusitis.
  • Some other medical conditions – cystic fibrosis, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, which has a less severe form of acidity), HIV and weakened immunity cause your nose to shut.

Due to which the risk of sinus increases –

The risk of sinusitis is higher in the following people –

  • People who have already had infections in the respiratory tract like colds etc.
  • Those who have germs in their nose, causing swelling in the nasal tube.
  • Whose immunity is weakened due to any disease or due to treatment of any beanery?
  • Those who have asthma, because there is a relationship between it and chronic sinusitis.
  • Those who are allergic to dust, pollen and animal hair etc.
  • Whose inner texture of nose is not right. The septum is a type of bone that is present in your nose. This bone divides the nose into two parts. If the septum is bent more to one side due to an injury or naturally, there is an increased risk of sinusitis or other infection.
  • People who smoke
  • Tooth infection increases the risk of sinus infection.

Sinus prevention

How to prevent sinus from happening?

Some of the remedies for sinusitis are as follows –

  • Wash hands thoroughly and maintains hygiene.
  • Avoid pollution like dust and mould and try to stay as clean as possible.
  • Avoid infection of the upper respiratory system. Also, do not touch or come in contact with people who suffer from colds and colds. Wash your hands frequently with soap, especially before meals.
  • If you have a known allergy, try to avoid it.
  • Avoid smoking and polluted air. Tobacco smoke and polluted air cause inflammation in your lungs and nose.

Sinus examination

How is a sinus infection or sinusitis tested?

Diagnosis of sinus infection is often made based on previous medical information and examination conducted by a doctor.

Empty x-ray studies of the sinus can be misleading. CT scans and MRI scans are very sensitive machines with the ability to diagnose sinus infections, but these machines are very expensive and not available in most hospitals. That is why early diagnosis and treatment of sinus infection is usually made based on medical findings. This may include these conclusions

  • Swelling and redness in the nasal passages
  • Nasal mucus or pus (this may be the most likely symptom to diagnose a sinus infection as a symptom).
  • Skin pain when touching the skin of the cheek or forehead.
  • Swelling near the eyes and cheeks

Occasionally, nasal secretions are examined for secretory cells that help differentiate between infectious and allergic sinusitis.

If the sinus infection is not cured by initial treatment, intensive studies can be done with the help of CT scan and MRI scan. Ultrasound is used to diagnose a sinus infection in pregnant women, but these CT Scans do not show the exact symptoms like MRI and rhinoscopy or endoscopy.

Also, endoscopy is used to obtain diagnostic materials of the sinuses. This reaction is performed by an otolaryngologist with the help of a general anaesthetic. Sometimes the patient may also need to be given a sedative (anaesthesia). According to some investigators, endoscopy samples are comparable to samples obtained by needle piercing.

Diagnosis of fungal infections is usually made by biopsy procedures. Allergic fungal sinusitis causes inflammation in the fungal elements of the sinus cavity, which is diagnosed based on the CT scan and imaging test or by physical examination.

Sinus treatment

What is the treatment for sinusitis?

Sinusitis can be treated with medications and many home remedies, such as steaming hot water on the face. Apart from this, the treatment of sinusitis has some of the following goals:

  • Try to remove mucus
  • Reduce sinus inflammation
  • Reduce pain and pressure
  • Get any type of infection treated immediately
  • Prevent any tissue or scar formation, and prevent other damage to the lining of the nose and sinuses

Antibiotics or home remedies may help the patient feel a little healthier before being treated for chronic or acute sinusitis. But sometimes the symptoms can be more severe due to this, and may also require additional treatment.

Intake of antibiotics in sinusitis:

Acute sinusitis – usually does not last more than four weeks. Every second or third person with sinusitis can improve themselves significantly with the help of antibiotics. Sinus infection is particularly caused by a viral infection, on which antibiotics do not affect. A doctor’s advice about this can help determine the right treatment and antibiotics for acute sinus infection. If the acute sinus infection is caused by a bacterial infection, most people recover themselves quickly with the help of antibiotics. The time it takes to recover depends on the antibiotics and the severity of the infection. When the patient is advised to take antibiotics, then the patient should take antibiotics until they recover completely, even if the patient feels healthy, talk to the doctor and follow their instructions. Because the infection may not be completely eradicated from the body.

Chronic sinusitis – For this – infection of sinusitis that lasts for 12 weeks or more is called chronic sinusitis. Its treatment is quite difficult and antibiotics also have a gradual effect on it.

Antibiotic therapy is typically used for chronic sinusitis because it requires a longer course of treatment. In this, the patient may need to take more than one antibiotic. During treatment, inflammation can be reduced from the lining of the nasal airways with the help of corticosteroid nasal spray.

In some people, sinus infection is caused by fungus or bacterium as compared to those who have suffered from an infection in general. For people whose disease immune system is not working properly, the risk of these extraordinary infections may increase. The risk of infection is also high for those who use oral and inhaled corticosteroid (such as prednisone) drugs. Fungal sinusitis, which is responsible for many chronic sinusitis cases. It does not respond to antibiotics and antifungal medicines, corticosteroids or surgery are used for its treatment.

If the patient has taken the antibiotic for more than a limited period, and symptoms are still visible or some complications (such as facial bone infection) may be likely. In such a situation, surgery may also be required.